A different faith challenging Pai Mārire emerged in the mid-1860s. It became known as Ringatū (the upraised hand) and was founded by Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Tūruki on Chatham Island (Wharekauri), during his captivity there between 1866 and 1868. Ringatū is still an established faith, with seven regional branches, each with different names. The formally registered church is the Hāhi Ringatū.
Source: Judith Binney, 'Māori prophetic movements – ngā poropiti - Te Kooti – Ringatū', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/maori-prophetic-movements-nga-poropiti/page-3 (accessed 28 November 2019)
Ringatū leader and prophet Te Kooti used a number of flags of his own design. The icons on this flag, of both Christian and traditional Māori significance, had special meanings. Historian Judith Binney argued that 'WI' marked the holy day (every 10th day in the Pai Mārire calendar) and that the letters also stood for the holy spirit, Wairua Tapu. In her opinion the crescent moon was a tohu (portent) of a new world, while the cross stood for the fighting Archangel Michael.
Source: Kerryn Pollock, 'Flags - Māori flags', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/zoomify/33977/te-kootis-flag (accessed 4 December 2019)
The thesis sets out to understand and to interpret the faith aspects of the Ringatu Church, which is comprised of the followers of Te Kooti, and to examine the Ringatu claim to be seen as a part of the Christian Church.