War in Taranaki 1860-61 and 1864-66

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The New Zealand Wars | Ngā Pakanga o Aotearoa campaigns in the Taranaki region were initiated by settlers and the New Zealand government. The spark was a dispute over land held at Waitara by Māori, but conflict soon spread throughout the Taranaki region. SCIS no. 1966002 SCIS

social_sciences, arts, english, history, health, Māori, technology

Taranaki Military Settlers, Pukearuhe

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

"Camp Waitara"

Puke Ariki

Telescope

Puke Ariki

Loyal and rebel districts, 1869

Archives New Zealand Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga

Pai Mārire flags

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Proclamations

Puke Ariki

Pah at the mouth of Waitara rivers, NZ

Auckland War Memorial Museum Tāmaki Paenga Hira

Te Āti Awa lands

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Wiremu Kīngi Te Rangitāke’s pā

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Story: Te Rangitake, Wiremu Kingi -

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Soldier with a pipe, book and drink

Life for a European soldier during the Taranaki campaigns wasn’t all fighting. In fact, for most of the time soldiers worked on fatigues, (menial non-military jobs like collecting firewood or watering horses etc.) marching, patrolling, constructing defensive positions and as we can see here, relaxing. This painting shows reading was a popular activity (as was, and still is, alcohol) and also smoking – which in those days was done using a pipe. Another activity implicit in this image is painting. Some British officers documented their soldiering lives through sketches and paintings. New Zealand examples included, Edward Williams, Cyprian Bridge, Horatio Robley and Von Tempsky.

Artist unknown :[Album of an officer. Enjoying a pipe and a book, South Taranaki or Wanganui? Nov. 15 [18]65

Alexander Turnbull Library

EPIC

Services to Schools

Deed of settlement

Services to Schools

New Zealand’s first war memorial lies in Whanganui’s Moutoa gardens. Erected by grateful Pakeha citizens it acknowledges the 1864 Battle of Moutoa Island. This battle was fought between Lower Whanganui River Māori and those further up the river who had become Pai Mārire converts. The latter, attempting to travel downriver to invade the Whanganui township were defeated on Moutoa Island by Te Rangihiwinui, leader of the allied friendly Māori forces. However, it was not a conscious act on the part of the friendly Māori (Ngati Hau, and Ngati Pamoana) to defend the Pakeha town of Whanganui. Rather it was to uphold their own mana against a raiding party trying to advance through their rohe.

Moutoa Gardens memorial

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake

“I will not, I will not, I will not'. The confrontation at Waitara between the Government and Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake was precipitated by Kingi’s refusal to allow the sale of land on the south side of Waitara river, despite a junior chief Te Manuka offering it for sale to the Government. As Te Rangitake told Governor Sir George Grey at an 1859 meeting, 'Listen, Governor…I will not permit the sale of Waitara to the Pakeha. Waitara is in my hands, I will not give it up.” He also wrote to Donald McLean (the Land Purchase commissioner) saying his whenua would not be given up, “lest we resemble the sea-birds which perch upon a rock when the tide flows the rock is covered by the sea…”

Wiremu Kingi Te Rangitake

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Kimble Bent

“I will be very thank full tu yoo if yoo would inquire if they would be dainger for me tu go among the white men in this country please write tu me and Mr Tama Tana tu know that I am a free man or not.” Kimble Bent deserted the British army in Taranaki in 1865. Subsequently, his unique life with the Hauhau was recorded and popularised by the historian James Cowan in his book, The adventures of Kimble Bent. And he had many adventures, not-the-least his part (though not actively) in the battles under Titokowaru where he was used by Māori as a slave (taurekareka) and ammunition expert (casting lead musket balls). The above quote is from a letter he wrote to the authorities.

THE WHITE SLAVE: A PRISONER AMONGST CANNIBALS. (Star, 12 September 1906)

National Library of New Zealand

The New Zealand Wars

Services to Schools

Military camp, Waitara, 1860

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Military camp, Waitara, 1860

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

General Chute's march

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

General Chute’s march through the forest

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Taranaki war, 1863–64

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Te Ua Haumēne

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Pukerangiora pa

Pukerangiora pa lies up the Waitara river on a bluff with views towards the coast and Waitara. The pa commandeered a strategic position in both Taranaki wars. In the first war (1860-61) British troops besieged the pa by running saps (protected trenches) towards the pa forcing Māori under Te Ātiawa chief Hapurona to eventually call a truce. In the Second Taranaki war it was briefly held but subsequently abandoned by Māori when British forces under Colonel Warre stormed it. The pa was also besieged in the earlier Musket Wars. On one occasion a large Waikato taua attacked the pa resulting in the death of hundreds of Te Ātiawa. Many tried escaping by jumping off the cliff.

Pukerangiora pā site

Manatū Taonga, the Ministry for Culture and Heritage

Parihaka

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